Lighting in the U. S. constitutes 18.8% of total electricity consumption. Improved efficiency in residential lighting is projected to significantly decrease energy use, as the transition from incandescent to compact fluorescent and solid state lighting proceeds. However, technological advances in energy efficiency often result in lower prices and increased consumer demand, a phenomenon known as “rebound.” Historically, this has been the norm for artificial lighting. Will it continue? Agent-based modeling (ABM) permits all three “pillars” of the sustainability paradigm (economic, social, and technological) to be integrated. ABM results suggest that rebound effects approaching 100% are possible as LEDs are phased into use.